Notes and news — August 1980
In this issue:
The VVIA in London
- The VVIA in London
- Notes for GLIAS Thames cruise
- Gazetteer of London industrial archaeology: North Lambeth and North-west Southwark
- Trails and things
- GLIAS Journal No. 2
- Business Archives Council annual conference
- News of the Dockland History Survey
- Recording Group training site visit
- The 11th GLIAS AGM
- Gazetteer of London industrial archaeology: Kensington & Chelsea (continued)
- News of Hugh Marks
- And IA on holiday
- Norman Cement Works
- IA exhibitions abroad
For two days last weekend (May 12/13) British weather attempted to demonstrate that it could be dry this summer and the Belgian IA Society (VVIA) appreciated the gesture as Belgium too is having a rotten summer. Not surprisingly a party of VVIA members on a weekend jaunt look just like GLIAS members doing the same: cameras, notebooks, lively conversation and an appetite for the subject. A good job too for a crowded weekend was afoot. From Commonwealth Hall two minibuses and the Chris Rule car took the party via Brixton windmill surrounded with corrugated iron to Waddon where the horizontal engines were as magnificent as usual. The 1915 engine slowly doing its bit to keep the thirsts of Croydon quenched. Nothing like that exists in Belgium we were told (or did they mean they only drink beer over there?) Then a flying visit to the remains of Croydon Airport and on to a traditional English chilli-con-carne and a pint of Young's on Wimbledon Common. A little arm-twisting got the mill opened for them with its fine collection of mill equipment. There are mills in Belgium we were assured — and Holland! When the clock struck three thirty the group were amazed to see the 90" engine at Kew spring slowly to life. Then on for a walk by our 'little canals' (they are much bigger on the continent) but at least here we could give a helping hand to a traditional narrow boat locking up the Hanwell flight. And so to bed (well at least I felt like it) but they had energy left to drink in St. Katherine Docks, visit the George and eat in Covent Garden.
A sunny Sunday morning and a route march round Euston, the gasworks, King's Cross and St. Pancras to wake them up, then off to Rotherhithe where Bob Barnes told us of Brunel and showed us round the engine house. After a pint and a sandwich in the Mayflower on the riverfront and another walk to see the tunnels proper, a fortuitous meeting with Mr. Goodwyn led to a conducted tour of the warehouse conversions. Then on to the Cathedral of Cast Iron designed to pump sewage — Abbey Mills — where it was guessed by our visitors that a princess must have lived. A short walk to the tide mills and a welcome cup of coffee from the Denis Smith Salvation Unit. Back to dinner via Wapping and Fournier Street just as the rain started. The weather must have put GLIAS members off the free wine and cheese party (unprecedented) so there was drink left over (unheard of), Denis and Malcolm Tucker showed slides of London, Bob Carr surprised us with slides of the Belgian steam mill engine at Silloth, near Carlisle; Danny Hayton surprised us even more with the action replay of the weekend he had made on a borrowed video system. But who was that strange person with the Yorkshire accent nattering about mills and sewage all the time? And what was the metronomic tap, tap, throughout the film. It wasn't the engines, nor — as one of the visitors suggested — Danny's wooden leg. Danny had not quite got the drift of sound recording and the lens cap was tapping against the camera (when it wasn't over the lens as he filmed, that was).
Monday saw a break-away faction off to see the Vikings Exhibition, with the more orthodox believers calling at the Science Museum before the boat train back to Ostend. Thanks to Denis Smith, Danny Hayton and Chris Rule for driving, Bob Carr, Bob Barnes and Tim Smith for guiding and accompanying the group. Thanks to the Belgians for helping us forge some international IA links. We hope they enjoyed it. Dave Perrett
... AND THANKS TO DAVE... who also put in some spade work on this trip I have no doubt, as on most others. One he has in hand at the moment is the 'return match' to Belgium.
Notes for GLIAS Thames cruise
This year a series of river trips are being run from Sargent Bros. Pier, Charlton. The trips last four hours and cover about 20 miles. The following notes are given to passengers as a conversation piece, they are not intended in any way to be complete, they should however give some idea of where the boat goes.
1. Sargent Brothers Pier. Unity Way.
2. Cubow Ltd. The only shipbuilding yard on the River. Recently they have built coasters, trawlers etc.
3. Woolwich Power Station. Chimneys demolished 1979.
4. Cairn Mills. Loders and Nucoline. Commenced operations 1887. Tailored fats specialists, principally for the food trade: ice cream, chocolates, margarine etc... Raw material ground nut oil imported via Tilbury and brought up river in lighters.
5. Thames Refinery Jetty, Tate & Lyle. Cane sugar refinery. Cane sugar imported in bulk carriers from Angola, West Indies etc. Used to operate own ships — Sugar Line. Now use chartered foreign bottoms.
6. East Greenwich Gasworks. Formerly huge coal-gas station. Oil gas plant, c. 1965, mothballed.
Formerly huge coal-gas station. Large gas holders (Guinness Book of Records), IRA bomb c.1978.
7. Thames Ironworks, site of. Closed 1912. Major shipbuilder, latterly especially warships and liners. Diversified as ship building on the Thames declined, went in for bridge building and structural steelwork. Built HMS Warrior, still extant (at West Hartlepool).
8. Trinity Buoy Wharf, Trinity House. Buoy maintenance yard etc., note lighthouse. Remains of Orchard dry dock a little to the West.
9. East India Docks. Now drained. Site used for stacking containers.
10. Brunswick Wharf Power Station. Built post World War II on site of East India Dock and the terminus of the London and Blackwall Railway. This site used to be a popular promenade and there was a hotel. Ships picked up passengers here as at Gallions. Station opened 1954.
11. RTS Blackwall Yard. Founded 1661. Original part probably on site of current Charrington's oil storage depot. Note caissons. The dry dock to the East is old, that to the West is still usable. Underground pumphouses have interesting machinery. This yard is reputed to have built more ships for the Royal Navy than any other. Formerly belonged to Green and Silley Weir, family house of the Green's now used as offices.
12. Isle House ex Dockmaster's house by John Rennie (the younger) 1824, listed. London House formerly Bridge House by John Rennie (the elder) across Prestons Road.
13. Launching Slips. Possibly Yarrow's. This firm built torpedo boats.
14. Victoria Deep Water Terminal. Flourishing container trade.
15. STC Enderby Wharf. Note family house of the Enderby's, listed. Boiler house and gear for loading submarine cable remain.
16. Enderby Dolphins. Cable ship John W Mackay, built Newcastle 1922, powered by double set of triple expansion engines.
17. Island Gardens. To improve view from Greenwich! Note cupola of pedestrian subway, 1897-1902.
18. Deptford Power Station. Site of Ferranti's original station, the first 'central' power station.
Ferranti planned to supply the whole of London — defeated by anti-monopolist legislation. His station transmitted power to central London at 10kV AC, starting in February 1891. Well ahead of its time in concept. The site of Ferranti's station is now a lawn, only a row of arches in the south wall of Deptford East Power Station survive.
19. Launching site of Brunel's Great Eastern. The N range of Burrell's paint works survives, probably from C J Mare's yard of 1860, on site of the Millwall Ironworks founded by William Fairbairn in 1835.
20. Penn's Boiler Shop. John Penn and Sons, marine engine and boiler manufacturers. Built 1250hp engine for the 'Warrior'. Now Payne's Wharf — J. Palmer Ltd.
21. Old Millwall Dock Entrance. Opened 1868. Dock joined to West India Dock System after takeover by the PLA. Ships for Millwall Docks latterly used the West India Dock Entrance.
22. Western entrance to City Canal. Built across Isle of Dogs 1805. Converted to present South Dock 1866-70. Recesses for lock gates can still be seen.
23. Nelson Dock. Ship repair yard. Nelson Dock House behind, restored.
24. Free Trade Wharf
(Thanks are due to Malcolm Tucker for information) Bob Carr
Gazetteer of London industrial archaeology: North Lambeth and North-west Southwark
Continuing our list of I.A. sites in London, we are looking at the area between Westminster Bridge Road and Southwark Bridge Road. The Borough boundary cuts through the area, as shown on the sketch below. Sites are all, except for the last two in Lambeth, arranged so they may be followed on foot; the total circuit would take some 2-3 hours. Not all side roads are shown. Street locations are given in preference to O.S. references. All addresses are London SE1.
136. Site of Wellington Mills, John Oakey & Sons, manufacturers of emery, sand, etc. papers and abrasives. Three stones (?edge runners) kept as a feature in housing development.
137. Lambeth North Tube Station. 1901, for Baker Street & Waterloo Railway. Standard design with steel frame and glazed brick, which could have additional development above if desired. (Many did, e.g. Leicester Square, Elephant & Castle). (>>>)
138. Workers' Housing, c.1905. Campbell Buildings, off Baylis Road. On site of works of Maudslay, Sons & Field, Engineers. Built when Waterloo Station was enlarged, 1907-22. One story is that these blocks of five-storey dwellings were for L&SW Railway employees, the other that they were to house those displaced from streets subsequently covered by Waterloo Station. Due to be demolished 1980/1. Similar blocks at Vauxhall. (>>>)
139. 121 Westminster Bridge Road. Offices, built 1900, for London Necropolis Cemetery Co, which had a private railway siding adjacent whence trains ran to their Brookwood cemetery.
140. Coade Stone Lion, SE end of Westminster Bridge. 1837. Former symbol of nearby Lion Brewery. Produced at Coade's Artificial Stone Works in Belvedere Road.
141. Half Oil Jars, 127 Lower Marsh. Sign of oil & colourman on shop front.
(Adjacent to side door of premises is well-kept coal hole cover of 'dog & pot' design).
142. Waterloo Station opened 1848. Present structure dates mainly from two major rebuilds, 1885 (plats. 16-21, 'Windsor Lines') and 1907-22 (the rest). Built for London & South Western Railway. Impressive main passenger entrance as memorial to employees killed in WW1.
143. Waterloo & City line, built 1901 by L&SWR as extension to serve the City Tube, with electric traction from opening. At the time the 'main' lines above were still steam-operated, so a generating station was built. Disused for generating c.1922. Present use unknown. Situated between station and Upper Ground.
144. Also associated with W&C, lifts, initially hydraulically worked. One is adjacent to the generating station, for waggons to gain access to a short siding. The other is for rolling stock transfers to the main line (a junction was not possible as the W&C is 41ft. lower). Situated at the end of a cul-de-sac off Leake Street. In use. (Assumedly still hydraulically worked, with electric pump-can anyone confirm?).
145. Hungerford Bridge, 1864. Taking the Charing Cross extension of South Eastern Railway across Thames.
146. Waterloo Bridge. Reinforced concrete. 1942. (official opening later).
147. Royal Hospital for Women & Children, built 1903-5 (founded earlier, see date on porch). Porch product of Doulton's nearby works; glazed brick and tiles. Disused. Some of ceramic panels from inside, which depicted nursery rhyme scenes, have been installed in St. Thomas' hospital North Wing. Corner Waterloo Bridge/Stamford Street.
148. Several offices etc. of 1916-36. All cement finished.
a) Cornwall House, Stamford Street, 1916. Built for HMSO as store, plus offices for Ministry of Works.
b) 49-62 Stamford Street. Offices and store for Boots Pure Drug Co.
c) 123 Stamford Street. Built for WH. Smith, primarily their own printing firms of Arden and St. Catherine Press.
d) LESCO House. 1932/3. Engineer's offices for London Electricity Supply Co.
149. Terraced housing. Roupell, Theed and Whittlesey Streets. Built c.1835. A few were extended 1891. Now Conservation area. Appearance of 'Northern' townscape.
150. Peabody Trust estate, between Roupell Street and Duchy Street. Typical of the standard design used 1860-1900, several brick five floor blocks with courtyards and communal laundry rooms in a top floor extension. These had several small 'coppers', iron bowls set in brick beneath which a fire could be lit to boil up water, plus sinks. Now modernised. Similar blocks exist on. Blackfriars Rd. (site 174) and Isabela St.
151. Large reinforced concrete cold store, Stamford Street, erected for Eldorado Ice Cream Company 1925-6. Mostly disused and equipment slowly being removed. The site is part of that which might be developed as a large scheme for Coin Street and surrounds. This is linked by a reinforced concrete bridge to the riverside Union Cold Stores, across Upper Ground.
152. Former H.Q and storehouse for David Greig, provision merchants.
a) H.Q. 1928, facing Waterloo Road. All the building except for the facade has been demolished and redevelopment has commenced to provide offices and a ground floor shop/supermarket.
b) Warehouse and former bacon stoves on Gray Street/Webber Street, i.e., behind a).
153. Although not strictly I.A., for completeness, perhaps we should mention the Old Vic, which started life as the Royal Coburg Theatre in 1818, went broke several times in the 1870s and was reopened 1880 as the Royal Victoria Coffee House Music Hall by the Coffee Palace Association in 1880. Reopened 1950 after war damage.
151. Reinforced concrete cold store, Stamford Street, built 1925-6 for Eldorado Ice Cream Company.
152. Former H.Q. of the David Greig organisation, which was bought out by Key Markets in 1974. Most of the site is being redeveloped, but the fine facade is being retained.
As mentioned above, the sites are arranged to form a walk sequence; any not on the route but in the area will be covered by a later section of the gazetteer.
154. Bargehouse Oil Works, Upper Ground. Two-storey building, former name just visible. Former works for removing oil from seeds.
Bargehouse Street. Alley leading to stairs down to Thames, for ferry and lighter access, with a hard spit of brick/stone stretching to low tide level. Note cannon used as bollard.
155. OXO store/warehouse, Bargehouse Street. Nine-floor reinforced concrete building, 1928/9, for Oxo Ltd/Leibig. Exterior cranes and jiggers removed. Mostly disused.
156. Dorset House, Stamford Street, 1931-3. Built for Iliffe & Sons Ltd, who printed a variety of periodical magazines. Now I.P.C. as is new office block opposite.
157. Rennie Street/Stamford Street. H.Q. of Sainsbury's, main part 1900 with additions. Firm started 1869 as a dairy & provisions shop in Drury Lane.
158. Blackfriars Road bridge. 1869, widened 1907-9 to take tramlines.
159. Two adjacent railway bridges.
a) London Chatham & Dover Railway, lattice, dated 1864 on coat of arms (opened 1866)
b) also LCDR, arched, 1886. (for further info see H.P. White, Regional History of the Railways of G.B, Vol. 3).
160. Bankside Power Station. Dating (?) 1953. Architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. Large brick block. Present equipment 100mw turbine and one oil-fired boiler. (>>>)
161. Southwark Street. Built 1864 by Metropolitan Board of Works at cost of over £500,000. First in London to have a central 'subway' to carry water, sewage, gas pipes and other services (these later included hydraulic mains and telegraph wires). The existence of the subway is indicated by frequent gratings and occasional access grills in the road. Similar subways exist beneath several subsequent M.B.W. roads.
162. 99 Southwark Street, David Kirkaldy & Son's Testing & Experimenting Works. A building designed to house a massive hydraulic testing machine which could pull, crush, bend, twist, stretch, punch and bulge materials such as iron, steel, concrete, with a force of up to 350 tons. The main machine occupies the ground floor and basement, the upper floors being for offices and smaller testing equipment.
163. Stevenson & Howell's Standard Works, Great Suffolk Street. Used for distilling and blending of essences and flavouring. (Further details, to be in a GLIAS report). (>>>)
164. Grande Vitesse goods depot. 1900, South Eastern & Chatham Railway. Continental goods. Great Suffolk Street, just before the viaduct carrying a spur up to the LCDR (1878).
165. 59 Great Suffolk Street. Southwark Bacon Company. Founded c.1925, drying and curing bacon in traditional kilns. (More details in forthcoming GLIAS report). (>>>)
166. Almshouses of Drapers Company. Glasshill Street. Built here 1820. Six houses.
167. Between Copperfield and Loman Streets, 1939 works and store built for British Trolley Track Company. A modest building in highly typical 1930s utilitarian style.
168. Southwark Bridge Road. Winchester House. Former workhouse adapted to be the H.Q. of the newly formed Metropolitan Fire Brigade (founded 1866 after Tooley Street fire). Remained HQ of London Fire Brigade until 1936. 1878 MBW and later LCC extension still used as fire station. Part stores a collection of historic fire engines.
169. Corner Southwark Bridge Road/49-60 Borough Road. Factory and offices/packing rooms of Day & Martin's Blacking Factory, c.1890. Particularly attractive is the brick chimney with stone supports. Section facing Borough Road is 'listed'. Firm moved to Stratford (East London) in 1913 and still produce boot polish at Great Dunmow, Essex.
170. The factory subsequently became part of the several buildings which made up the works of Robert Hoe & Co. Ltd, makers of printing presses and other printing equipment. Their main factory, situated on the south side of Borough Road, included No. 109-112, a former chapel and several premises in appropriately-named Rotary Street. Parts of the disused works are being demolished (July 1980). (>>>)
171. NATSOPA H.Q, 1933. Modest office accommodation for this printing union.
172. 115 Blackfriars Road. Temperance Hall, built 1875 by Temperance Hall Company. Part of Salvation Army Men's hostel.
173. 154/6 Blackfriars Road. Built 1896/7 for Rotary Type-Casting Co (makers of compositing machines). Since has been a type foundry, brewers engineers, exporters and switch gear maker and suppliers.
174. Peabody Estate, 1872-80. Some 20 blocks with two main courtyards. All five storeys. To the 'standard' design of the Peabody Trust's then architect, H.A. Darbishire. (see The Builder 13.1.1872 for further details).
To be continued. David Thomas
Trails and things
First an apology from your Ed. who got her dates mixed last issues the Croydon Canal Exhibition opens at Bromley Library on July 29 not July 7, it is not going to Thames Ditton, but will be shown at the Symposium on the canal being arranged by the Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society in November and will also go to the Lewisham Local History Library next year. (I was right about one thing tho', Bromley Library is shut on Mondays!)
The exhibition panels, with considerable supplementary material incl. reproduction canal ware, can be borrowed from the British Waterways Board.
George West's booklet about the canal, 'To Penge — by Canal', has been reprinted and is available at 30p incl. p&p from Philip Daniell at 300 Baring Road, SE12.
Also available from Philip and over the counter in the Canal Shop & Information Centre at Marylebone Station with other canal publications, is a leaflet describing the full route of the Bow Back Rivers Walk (only part of which can be undertaken until CEGB cable laying is completed) at 5p, plus 10p p&p (unless 'To Penge' is ordered at the same time). Philip also has a list of Coal Duty Posts in the London Borough of Bromley, with map references and a general note about the posts available for 15p (or 5p if other items are ordered).
From Manchester I have news of three trails (one of 'em free) and a book. The book is 'Oldest in the World?', the story of Liverpool Road Station, Manchester, which is coming out at the end of July and is obtainable from the Hon. Treasurer, Liverpool Road Station Society (to whom cheques should be made out), Liverpool Road Station, Liverpool Road, Manchester M3 4DP, at £1.95 incl. p&p for 96pp incl. photographs and sketch maps. The trails are: 'The Manchester Rail Trail' with 15pp, 2 maps & 2 diagrams at 20p, please send large SAE; The Ducie Street Trail which is the free one, but send large SAE; The Liverpool Road — Water Street Railway c. 20 pp, ready end of July, limited print — all three from A.D. George, Dept of General Studies, John Dalton Building, Manchester Polytechnic, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD.
GLIAS Journal No. 2
The second issue of London's Industrial Archaeology will (with some luck) be published in September and will probably include articles on gas holders, Commercial Road goods depot, London's steam engine builders, cast-iron cow stalls and the London Small Arms Factory. GLIAS members (i.e. those who have renewed their subscriptions) should receive copies with their next newsletter. Brenda Sowan, Journal editor
Business Archives Council annual conference, on July 9
About 100 members and guests attended the BAG Conference, held this year at the Bloomsbury HQ of the Library Association. The Secretary General, Mr. Keith Lawrey, DP, LLB, FCIS, welcoming the members, outlined the work of the LA and expressed his hopes that more effective liaison might be established between the LA and the various specialised bodies concerned with the preservation and use of records. Four entertaining and interesting talks (illustrated by slides or films) were given, linked by the general theme of "advertising".
Miss Alison Turton, of the House of Fraser Ltd, described her year's pioneer work as company archivist to the Group, which comprises a wide variety of retail undertakings from the original Frasers of Glasgow, drapers and funeral directors (an offshoot of the Victorian demand for mourning clothes, etc..) to the Army & Navy Stores, Harrods, Dickins & Dones, Binns and other provincial stores. She illustrated by slides the variety of the surviving records: account books, catalogues, photographs of staff and shops and described how these could be used in staff training, to develop the interest of both old and new staff in th history of their own store and of the Group. Such items could also be used to advantage as material for sales promotion, providing attractive displays to interest customers at the shops. Mr. David Dunbar (associate director of 3. Walter Thompson Ltd.) a Governor of the recently formed History of Advertising Trust, took as his theme the history of advertising in the UK, tracing, in particular, the progression from the modest paragraphs in the news sheets of the 18th century to the colourful advertisements and posters of the present day. (Older members much enjoyed the slides of the once familiar Pears Soap posters of "Bubbles" and the unwashed tramp).
Mrs. Paula MacGibbon (publicity manager of Dodo Designs) illustrated inter alia how the current vogue for Victoriana had been exploited in the use of "classic" brand labels and trade marks in the decoration of gift ware, printed PUC aprons and the like.
Mr. Robert Opie, under the title "Preserving the Pack Age" traced the development of the branded package with examples from his own extensive collection of packaging materials. These illustrate the changing fashions in the styles of labels and containers: while many old trade designs are maintained, in to original or slightly modernised form, designs for newly introduced products, in particular, reflect current artistic taste.
The last speaker, Mr. C. Jeavons of the National Film Archive, dealt with the rise of the advertising film. He showed what is probably the earliest extant example: a short film of Highland dancing — "Dewar's — It's Scotch" — made to promote the sale of Dewars Highland Whisky in 1898 (only a few years after the introduction of "movies"). This was followed by an amusing story-type film of 1916 — "Shine Sir?" by Kiwi Shoe Polish and a 1937 example of the animated cartoon — "The King With the Terrible Hickups" — with the advertisers name (Bush Radio) coyly reserved for a surprise "punch-line". Else Lewkowitsch
News of the Dockland History Survey
The Docklands History Survey has achieved some success in acting as a clearing house for information. Despite gloomy prognostications several items of machinery from the Royal Albert Dock Works of River Thames Shiprepairs Ltd. have in fact been saved from the breakers. River Thames Shiprepairs, a subsidiary of British Shipbuilders, is the nationalised concern which about two years ago took over the ship repair facilities on the River Thames. These comprised three sets of dry docks in London, works and a dry dock at Tilbury and facilities at Gravesend, Sheerness and Felixstowe. Since 1978 ship repairing on the River has declined and the whole group has closed. Dry dock facilities are no longer available on the Thames.
With great generosity British Shipbuilders have loaned several smaller machines from the Royal Albert Dock Works of River Thames Shiprepairs Ltd to preservation groups? It is reported that an American handsaw manufactured by the Pratt & Witney Co, Hartford, Connecticut, USA and dated January 1881, has arrived at the Dolphin Sailing Barge Museum, Sittingbourne, Kent. This was removed together with the 1929 electric motor which drove it and the associated switchgear. The electric motor was made by the Crypto Electrical Co. Ltd, Willesden, London. The River Lea Industrial Archaeology Society has removed for restoration three lathes, two wood-working and one metal, working, a French bandsaw and about ten feet of line shafting. The bandsaw, probably dating from c.1900, was made by Guilliet et Fils, Auxerre.
The Brunel Project (GLIAS Newsletter April 1980) hope to display some large machines on the lawn outside their engine house at Rotherhithe and planning permission is being sought. The proposed items include a two-cylinder vertical reciprocating pump, used to prime centrifugal pumps at Lavender Dock Pumphouse in Surrey Docks and an 1888 single column air hammer (presumably at one time steam) by R. Harvey of Glasgow, at present in the Blacksmiths' Shop of the Royal Albert Dock Works of River Thames Shiprepairs Ltd. Special thanks are due to Mr. T.W. Spurr, the London Area Manager of River Thames Shiprepairs, for the goodwill and patience he has shown towards the work of recording; we are most grateful for his help. Bob Carr
Recording Group training site visit on Saturday 21 June, 1980
The visit to the Thames Water Authority Storm Drainage Pumping Station at Maguire Street, near Tower Bridge was attended by about 25 GLIAS members and proved to be an interesting and instructive training session, as well as a valuable recording exercise in its own right.
The contrast between the pumping station and the warehouses used as training sites last year was immense. Although much smaller, the pumping station was fully equipped with machinery and so the amount of material to be recorded in the time available was much greater than had been the case last year, so much so that, inevitably, a return visit will be necessary to look at the things which were missed. Additionally, a higher level of technical knowledge was required when examining machinery in detail. Thus, when going to any site where there is likely to be machinery, if you can find someone to go along with you who has technical knowledge of the machines or processes used in the industry concerned, then take that person with you.
As one of those involved in organising the visit it rapidly became apparent that the key to efficient recording with large teams is careful organisation. Thus we divided those on the visit into five groups, each with specific responsibilities. This was only possible because we had been able to make a preliminary visit to the site a week earlier. Without that preliminary visit there would probably have been total chaos on the training visit and much less would have been achieved in the time available.
Time is the key factor in site recording. The more time there is available, the more that can be done. This is, of course, obvious, but it is essential that account be taken of the available time and an appropriate strategy devised for tackling a site.
I would suggest the following as an appropriate order of priorities for site work. The greater the time available, the further down the list one can work:
1. Quick, general appreciation of the site. What is it? Basically, what can one see if one looks around for five minutes?
2. Identification of the various processes carried on and an inventory of the machinery doing that work. Identification of processes and plant requiring priority detailed examination. Examination of interior structure of the building (the exterior can usually be dealt with by photographs or later examination from the street and so ranks as low priority).
3. Detailed examination of priority items.
4. Such detailed examination of other items, fixtures and fittings, etc., as time permits. The above is only a suggestion; it would be useful if we could produce a comprehensive site recording scheme for future USD and guidance. Any suggestions for improvements to the above will therefore be welcome. Finally, our thanks to Thames Water Authority. David Thompson, Recording Group secretary
The 11th GLIAS AGM
More than sixty members were at the eleventh AGM in the Museum of London Lecture Theatre on May 17 1980 to approve the minutes of the last AGM, appoint Robert Vickers to audit the accounts for next year and hear Danny Hayton's cheerful account of our accounts, the acceptance of which was proposed by Derek Holliday, seconded by Bill Firth and approved by all those present. The two motions regarding finance — a new lower subscription rate of £1 for older members and power for the Committee to raise subscriptions to a maximum of £5 individual members, £7 family, £10 affiliated societies and £2.50 for reduced subscriptions without consulting members at an extraordinary general meeting — were both unanimously accepted, with only the insertion of 'National' before 'retirement age' to add clarity to the first, as suggested by Ross Nicholls.
The Recording Group were reported by David Thompson as having a manpower shortage (surely 'peoplepower') and a superabundance of sites in need of attention. In his Chairman's Report Denis Smith told us of the big growth in membership, the exchange weekend visits arranged for the summer with the VVIA of Belgium (see above) and the A.I.A. Conference which GLIAS is to host in London in 1982. Denis then thanked Michael Robbins for agreeing to continue as our President in spite of his many and varied commitments and the other members, on the Committee and off, who kept the Society running and expanding, with special mention of Glenn Drewett who arranges the Winter Lecture Series that are rapidly becoming an institution.
The re-election of the Executive Committee took place as there had not been any new nominations and all the members were prepared to continue serving. Your Committee therefore comprises:
Chairman Denis Smith
Secretary & Newsletter Ed Brenda Innes
Membership Sec Lyn Holliday
Treasurer Danny Hayton
Journal Ed Brenda Sowan
Publication Sales Peter Skilton
Events co-ordinator Dave Perrett
Recording Grp Secretary David Thompson
Promotion Bill Firth, Julia Elton, Bob Carr, Tim Smith
Our AGM lecturer (or the sugar that coats the pill) this year was Brian Bracegirdle the leading IA photographer. Non-photographers (if we have any?) could enjoy Brian's dictum that the only good tripod was too heavy to carry and that a tripod was an absolute essential, while the photography-besotted majority had a chance to learn from the expert and, better still, ask him questions about their particular problems. All enjoyed a professional and amusing talk with, of course, some jolly fine slides. Something I learned here was that although large slides may be infinitely superior, even the Museum of London does not have equipment to show them, so if Brian had been any less of a pro, and not brought his own projector, we should have remained. Brenda Innes
Gazetteer of London industrial archaeology: Kensington & Chelsea (continued)
On Newsletter 67 (GLIAS Newsletter April 1980) I'm afraid I left Malcolm Tucker's most interesting IA of the Royal Boroughs in the air outside Harrods; here is a continuation, although of course not the completion, for if Malcolm doesn't find any more, somebody else will!
1. SOUTH KENSINGTON STATION
Cutting retaining walls of 1868, present glass-roofed buildings of around 1900. Doric colonnaded entrances with wrought and cast-iron screens worded 'Metropolitan and District Railways' etc.
19c. GLOUCESTER ROAD STATION
1868 building of District & Metropolitan Railways. Two-storey round-headed Italianate in cream brick with stucco cornices; later station name in green and white mosaic frieze. 1906 building of Piccadilly line in standard style with ruby-red glazed blockwork facing, the interior largely unaltered.
175. CHELSEA EMBANKMENT, Battersea Bridge to Chelsea Bridge SW3 268775-285779
Constructed 1871-4 by (Sir) Joseph Bazalgette for the upper section of the Northern low-level interceptor sewer.
176. THE WESTERN PUMPING STATION, Grosvenor Road 287779
of 1875 is across the Westminster boundary. It lifts the sewage into the main section of the low-level sewer which then gravitates to Abbey Mills Pumping Station, Newham. Bold stock brick architecture, French rather than Italianate, with pavilion roof and broad, corniced chimney.
177. GROSVENOR CANAL, Grosvenor Road (Westminster)
of 1825, rebuilt as a dock for refuse barges in 1928-9
178. GROSVENOR RAILWAY BRIDGE, Grosvenor Road (Westminster)
Re-built 1963-7 with four steel-arched spans, 10 tracks wide.
180. ALBERT BRIDGE 274 775 1871-3 by R.M. Ordish
Suspension bridge of 400 foot main span with ornamental cast-iron towers. On the rigid suspension principle of diagonal stays radiating from the towers. The curved suspension chains serve principally to take the weight of the stays and so keep them straight.
181. BATTERSEA BRIDGE 270 774 1886-90 by Sir Joseph Bazalgette & his son Edward
Five arches of cast iron ribs and wrought iron spandrels 163 foot central span. The cast iron fascias have a shallower curve than the main arch ribs — visually unsuccessful, also the cause of navigation accidents. Replaced a timber viaduct of 1772, the subject of Whistler's controversial painting.
182. former ELECTRICITY GENERATING STATION, Alpha Place Flood Street SW3
Shell of building of Chelsea Electricity Supply Co. Ltd 1896
183. CABMAN'S SHELTER S end Kensington Park Rd, Notting Hill Gate, W11 251 805
Cf. item 7 (GLIAS Newsletter June 1979). I mistakenly reported this as being in Ladbroke Grove (GLIAS Newsletter January 1975). There are others at Kensington Gore, SW7 and Chelsea Embankment (Cadogan Pier) SW3.
184. WORKSHOP WINGS, Ansleigh Place, W11 238 807
are built out at the rear of a conventional three-storey terrace in Stoneleigh Street, c.1870-80. What was the industry involved? Was it laundering, perhaps?
16 TILE KILN, Walmer Road, W11 242 805
This bottle-shaped kiln has recently been incorporated into a dwelling house.
185. FIRE STATION, Faraday Road, W10 nr N end of Ladbroke Grove 241 818
A splendid piece of architecture, red brick sub-Gothic, with octagonal tower, presumably for drying hoses.
186. ST. CHARLES'S HOSPITAL, Exmoor St, W10 237 819
Around 1870, by institutional specialist architect, Saxon Snell. Massive water tower cum chimney in suitable Gothic disguise. Cast iron two-storey bridges between ward blocks.
19a. STEEL TRUSS RAILWAY BRIDGES across GWR main line, early 20th century (not late 19th century). Long-span truss carrying Ladbroke Grove, 240 821, bears date 1913 (Contractors F.C. & D. Keay Ltd, of Darlaston).
187. CANAL BRIDGE, Ladbroke Grove 238 823
carries plaque of local firms Jas. Bartle & Co. Iron & Brass Founders, Engineers &c. Lancaster Road, W11. Cf. item 2 (GLIAS Newsletter June 1979).
188. KENSAL GREEN GASWORKS
Largely demolished, except for large 20th-century gas holder and two canal basins.
189. HOUSING FOR GAS WORKERS, Ladbroke Grove 239 822 1936
By Maxwell Fry, et al. White veneered slab blocks, an important example of the International Modern Style in England.
190. KENSAL GREEN CEMETERY
Includes grave of Joseph Locke, railway engineer, d. 1860.
191. WESTBOURNE PARK STATION W11 (just in Westminster, but geographically Notting Hill) 249 818
Serving both the GWR main line and the Hammersmith & City, the latter with characterful platforms on curve. Canopies have ornamental columns in a GWR pattern of c.1870 and wrought iron purlin trusses.
192. 'METROPOLITAN' PUBLIC HOUSE, adjacent to Westbourne Park station
Has stucco plaque with primitive representation of early railway locomotive.
News of Hugh Marks
Bob Carr has had a letter from Hugh, enjoying his work out in the Turks & Caicos Islands, where, of course, he is finding something of IA interest. The local industry was salt panning and the islands have many remains of the salt pans or salinas. In addition Hugh was asking Bob to find some background to 'a bit of an old engine' he has unearthed, which was made in Armley, Leeds. Once IA has got you it has got you, wherever you go!
And IA on holiday
If you're holidaying on the South Coast and you get bored with toasting yourself on the beach all day (which from where I'm sitting looks highly unlikely) have a look at the CHALK PITS MUSEUM at Houghton Bridge, Amberley, Arundel, West Sussex, (phone Bury 370). Not only do they have a restored lime kiln, but are gathering together exhibits of other industries of Southern England such as blacksmithery, wood working and printing. There is a collection of radio equipment and a nature and geology trail, so there should be something for every member of the family. Parking and picnic area are free.
Norman Cement Works
The GLIAS visit to Norman Cement Works, Cherry Hinton, Cambridge, commenced at 10.00 hrs. as planned on Saturday March 22nd this year in very fine weather. The works were started in 1904 by the Norman Portland Cement Company and(?) after various amalgamations are now part of Blue Circle Industries. Norman Works is the smallest in the group. The wet process of cement manufacture has been operated here since after World War One.
To start we visited the marl quarry to the south of the works. Marl, clay with a high chalk content, is extracted by a Ruston dragline. After roughly two feet of topsoil are removed the marl extends down about 40 feet, below which is greensand. Some 3,000 tons per week are excavated and transported to the washmills by conveyor. Additionally about 1,000 tons of chalk per week are brought in by road from a quarry a few miles away.
At the washmill the marl is weighed automatically. A hooter signals to the driver of the dragline to deposit loads of chalk as required while a hopper dispenses the correct amount of sodium silicate and soda ash. The latter are added to reduce the amount of water in the slurry while maintaining fluidity. The slurry has a water content of 30-34 per cent, without additives it would be 42 per cent. The first washmill has two chain-hung harrows. Here chalk, marl and water are mixed to a slurry. The fines pass through screens around the circumference. The mix then passes through a second mill, the screening mill, containing swisher blades and screens. The electric motor powering the mills is connected by rope drive. From here the slurry passes to two mixer-Storage tanks. We noted in the next pumphouse a three-throw positive displacement pump by Ernest Newell, about 60 years old. Dimensions are 8 inches diameter by 16 inches stroke.
Slurry is transferred next to another mixer/storage tank just to the north of the main buildings which house the rotary kiln. The tank is of 52 feet diameter with sun and planet motion paddles. Close by, another pumphouse contained two more positive displacement pumps. The slurry is pumped to the rear of the rotary kiln which is 300 feet long and has internal diameters of 71 9 ½ and 9 ½". This kiln was installed in 1949 when major reconstruction at Norman Works took place. It was built by Vickers and transported to Cherry Hinton in sections by rail. The building which encloses the entire kiln plant was erected at the same time, together with the present chimney.
The slurry is fed into the upper end of the kiln which is inclined downwards. At the other end a coal dust/hot air mixture is blown in and ignited with the flame blowing up the kiln. The coal is pulverised in an Alfred Herbert mill. At the lower end the temperature is at about 1,500°C falling to around 230°C at the top. Slurry passes down the kiln and the water it contains evaporates. Chains inside the kiln help to transfer heat to the slurry. At the bottom white hot clinker falls into a Fuller Grate Cooler — the first in this country to be used by Blue Circle. The Fuller Cooler employs a cold air blast and plates and is not rotary. The clinker now goes to a storage bunker. About 6 per cent of Gypsum is added to prevent the finished cement from setting too quickly and the mixture is ground in a tube ball mill. The first chamber of the mill has 3" diameter balls, the second has graded balls 2½" to ½" in diameter. The cement powder, as it is now, is blown into a storage silo. Low pressure air can be introduced at the bottom of the silo which aerates the cement powder so that it flows like water. As required cement powder is either loaded into bulk road vehicles or bagged for distribution. At Norman Works 70 per cent is distributed in bulk.
Coal for firing the kiln is brought by rail from Bolsover Colliery, Derbyshire. The 16 ton mineral wagons are shunted by the works own Planet diesel locomotive. It is still economic to operate this small plant at Cherry Hinton for local distribution. The nearest other plant in East Anglia is at Ipswich. Cement from Norman Works was used in building the last two sections of the M11.
We would like to express our thanks to our guide Mr. Don Evans for the trouble he took to show us everything. GLIAS is also grateful to Mr. B.D. Crane, the Works General Manager, for allowing the visit. Pam Carr
IA exhibitions abroad
Three GLIAS members (including Barbara Hayton, our youngest member) seem to have spent their recent holiday dodging from exhibition to exhibition. During our recent continental wanderings, it was interesting to note the amount of attention being focussed on the importance of the industrial revolution and in particular on the part played in the diffusion of knowledge by Britain and British manufacturers.
In Bologna, a relatively small Northern Italian town, we visited an exhibition commemorating the opening of a technical school in Bologna. It was imaginatively set up with beautifully restored models of Newcomen engines, Watt linkages and Smeaton-type water wheels. There were three audiovisual displays which helped to show the influence of two travellers to Britain in the early 19th century.
This was on a relatively small scale compared to the exhibitions mounted in the new Georges Pompidou Centre in Paris. The building itself is a tour de force and is not let down by the exhibits inside. One of the permanent exhibits was a slide show of how the Industrial Revolution affected France. Although we couldn't stay longs, it was obvious that most of the slides were familiar scenes of British industry. There was also a large illuminated wall panel showing advances in technology: again it was easy to pick out Telford's proposed London Bridge, Coalbrookdale, Crystal Palace and so on.
We also had time to visit the Swiss Transport Museum on the lake in Lucerne. It costs a little more than the new LT museum, but seemed far better value. There were a number of different buildings linked by open air areas for the larger exhibits. Because Posts & Telecommunications was included as well as the Tourist Office, money must have been available from central government — worth remembering perhaps. All exhibits bar one were labelled in four languages; more than we do for all our foreign visitors. The one unlabelled exhibit was a model of the 'Waverley' so we could not discover what it was doing there. Railways were featured prominently — mostly electric because of the very early transfer from steam. However, one nice touch on the engines was bundles of twigs designed to sweep snow off the rails: very tidy people the Swiss. All in all well worth a visit to Lucerne. Sue Hayton
Next issue >>>
© GLIAS, 1980